Chemical Bonds
Notice: this page is under construction
Notice: this page is under construction

Line Bonds

Let us start by associating an acidic quark with one of the electrons in a covalent bonding pair. This simple arrangement is called $\mathbb{B}\small{\sf{(golden \ line) }}$. It is the first example of a line bond formed predominantly from acidic quarks.

$\large{\mathbb{B}}\small{ \sf{(golden \ line) }} \equiv \, \,${ {e, acidic-quark.png}, e }

Line bonds are usually indicated using a short line segment like thislinebond.png. For example, in the chemical structure diagram for $\mathrm{Au}_{2} \,$, a diatomic gold molecule, the bond is represented as Au–Au. This is the only bond that we consider to be defined by just one quark. The archetype of all line bonds involves two acidic quarks like this

$\large{\mathbb{B}}\small{ \sf{( line) }} \equiv \, \,${ {e, acidic-quark.png}, e , acidic-quark.png }

This arrangement accurately represents the bond in H–Cl, a strong acid. We cannot add any more acidic quarks to a pair of electrons without violating Pauli's exclusion principal. But we can include other quarks to define other bonds as shown in the table below, they are generically called linen bonds. Stereochemical quarks are about a hundred times smaller than electrochemical quarks, so they can be sprinkled-in without altering the essentially acidic character of the bond. We can also include another pair of electrons to define double line-bonds such as

$\large{\mathbb{B}}\small{ \sf{( double \ line) }} \equiv \, \,${ {e, acidic-quark.png}, {e, dextro-anti-quark.png} , {e, levo-quark.png}, {e, basic-quark.png}, levo-anti-quark.png }

This set correctly describes the bond strength in dimers of sulphur. And here is a list of some other line bonds.

line.png

Hash Bonds

Next we consider distinguishing electrons by association with basic quarks. Ligatures dominated by basic quarks are called hash bonds. Hash bonds may be shown using this symbol hashbond.png . The leading example for this group is

$\large{\mathbb{B}}\small{ \sf{( hash) }} \equiv \, \,${ {e, basic-quark.png}, e , basic-quark.png }

This set of quarks and electrons accurately represents the bond in sodium hydroxide, NaOH, also known as lye or caustic soda. No additional basic-quarks can be included without violating Pauli's exclusion principle. But we can add other sorts of quarks to make similar linkages called hashed bonds. We can also include another pair of electrons to define double hash-bonds such as

$\large{\mathbb{B}}\small{ \sf{( double \ hash) }} \equiv \, \,${ {e, basic-quark.png}, {e, basic-quark.png, levo-quark.png} , {e, basic-quark.png, levo-anti-quark.png}, {e, levo-quark.png}}

The strength of the double-bond in carbon dioxide, O=CO, is correctly represented by this arrangement. And here is a list of some other hash bonds.

hash.png

Wedge Bonds

Next we distinguish electrons by associating them with cationic quarks. Bonds that are dominated by cationic quarks are called wedge bonds, they are often be indicated by this symbol wedgebond.png . The archetypal wedge bond is

$\large{\mathbb{B}}\small{ \sf{( wedge) }} \equiv \, \,${ {e, cationic-quark.png}, e , cationic-quark.png }

This mix of quarks and electrons correctly represents the bond in sodium chloride, NaCl, commonly known as table salt. No further cationic-quarks can be added without violating Pauli's exclusion principle. But we may include other sorts of quarks, mostly small stereochemical quarks, to make similar sets generically called wedgie bonds. The most important variation adds an acidic quark to make

$\large{\mathbb{B}}\small{ \sf{( golden \ wedge) }} \equiv \, \,${ {e, cationic-quark.png, levo-quark.png} , {e, acidic-quark.png, levo-quark.png}, levo-quark.png}

This bond accurately represents the link between hydrogen atoms in a diatomic hydrogen gas molecule, $\mathrm{H}_{2} \,$. We can also include two more pairs of electrons to define triple wedge-bonds such as

$\large{\mathbb{B}}\small{ \sf{( triple \ wedge) }} \equiv \, \,${ {e, cationic-quark.png}, {e, cationic-quark.png, levo-quark.png} , {e, cationic-quark.png, levo-anti-quark.png}, {e, acidic-quark.png}, {e, anionic-quark.png}, e }

The strength of the triple-bond in carbon monoxide, C≡O, is correctly represented by this arrangement. And here is a list of some other wedge bonds.

wedge.png












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