Bead Panel from a baby carrier, Bahau people. Borneo 20th century, 29 x 26 cm. From the Teo Family collection, Kuching. Photograph by D Dunlop. |

Let particle P be described by a chain of events where the quarks in each orbital cycle $\sf{\Omega}$ can be parsed into two sets

$\sf{\Omega}^{\sf{P}} = \left\{ \sf{P}_{\large{\Uparrow}} \, , \sf{P}_{\large{\Downarrow}} \vphantom{Q^{2}} \right\}$

that have opposite magnetic polarities

$\delta _{\hat{m}} \left( \sf{P}_{\large{\Uparrow}} \vphantom{Q^{2}} \right) =- \, \delta _{\hat{m}} \left( \sf{P}_{\large{\Downarrow}} \vphantom{Q^{2}} \right) = \pm \rm{1}$

Then $\sf{P}_{\large{\Uparrow}}$ and $\sf{P}_{\large{\Downarrow}}$ are called the north and south components of P. When these two components have the same charge $q$ then the outcome of any calculation using the charge is not affected by a change of polarity. The magnetic polarity is used to specify direction on the magnetic axis. So for particles like P a simple description of the charge distribution along the magnetic axis is symmetric. Phenomena associated with the charge of P are unaltered by any confusion or mix-up between north and south. This indifference is useful, so if

$q \, \left( \sf{P}_{\large{\Uparrow}} \vphantom{Q^{2}} \right) = q \, \left( \sf{P}_{\large{\Downarrow}} \vphantom{Q^{2}} \right)$

then we say that P has **charge-symmetry on the magnetic-axis**. See the quark model of atomic hydrogen for an example of this kind of symmetry.

Alternatively, let particle P be described by a chain of events where the quarks in each orbital cycle $\sf{\Omega}$ can be parsed into two sets

$\sf{\Omega}^{\sf{P}} = \left\{ \sf{P}_{\large{\oplus}} , \sf{P}_{\large{\ominus}} \vphantom{Q^{2}} \right\}$

that have opposite electric polarities

$\delta _{\hat{e}} \left( \sf{P}_{\large{\oplus}} \vphantom{Q^{2}} \right) =- \, \delta _{\hat{e}} \left( \sf{P}_{\large{\ominus}} \vphantom{Q^{2}} \right) = \pm \rm{1}$

Then $\sf{P}_{\large{\oplus}}$ and $\sf{P}_{\large{\ominus}}$ are called the positive and negative components of P. When these two components have the same charge $q$ then the outcome of any calculation using the charge is not affected by a change of polarity. The electric polarity is used to specify direction on the electric axis. So for particles like P a simple description of the charge distribution along the electric axis is symmetric. Phenomena associated with the charge of P are unaltered by any confusion or mix-up between positive and negative components. This indifference is useful, so if

$q \, \left( \sf{P}_{\large{\oplus}} \vphantom{Q^{2}} \right) = q \, \left( \sf{P}_{\large{\ominus}} \vphantom{Q^{2}} \right)$

then we say that P has **charge-symmetry on the electric-axis**. See the quark model of atomic hydrogen for an example of this kind of symmetry.