Bead Panel from a baby carrier, Bahau people. Borneo 20th century, 29 x 26 cm. From the Teo Family collection, Kuching. Photograph by D Dunlop. |

Let particle P be described by a chain of events where the quarks in each orbital cycle $\sf{\Omega}$ can be parsed into two sets

$\sf{\Omega}^{\sf{P}} = \left\{ \sf{P}_{\large{\Uparrow}} \, , \sf{P}_{\large{\Downarrow}} \vphantom{Q^{2}} \right\}$

that have opposite magnetic polarities

$\delta _{\hat{m}} \left( \sf{P}_{\large{\Uparrow}} \vphantom{Q^{2}} \right) =- \, \delta _{\hat{m}} \left( \sf{P}_{\large{\Downarrow}} \vphantom{Q^{2}} \right) = \pm \rm{1}$

Then $\sf{P}_{\large{\Uparrow}}$ and $\sf{P}_{\large{\Downarrow}}$ are called the north and south components of P. When these two components have the same charge $q$ then the outcome of any calculation using the charge is not affected by a change of polarity. The magnetic polarity is used to specify direction on the magnetic axis. So for particles like P, the charge distribution along the magnetic axis is symmetric. Descriptions of phenomena associated with the charge of P are unaltered by any confusion or mix-up between north and south. This indifference is useful, so if

$q \, \left( \sf{P}_{\large{\Uparrow}} \vphantom{Q^{2}} \right) = q \, \left( \sf{P}_{\large{\Downarrow}} \vphantom{Q^{2}} \right)$

then we say that P has **charge-symmetry on the magnetic-axis**. See the quark model of atomic hydrogen for an example of this kind of symmetry.

Alternatively, let particle P be described by a chain of events where the quarks in each orbital cycle $\sf{\Omega}$ can be parsed into two sets

$\sf{\Omega}^{\sf{P}} = \left\{ \sf{P}_{\large{\oplus}} , \sf{P}_{\large{\ominus}} \vphantom{Q^{2}} \right\}$

that have opposite electric polarities

$\delta _{\hat{e}} \left( \sf{P}_{\large{\oplus}} \vphantom{Q^{2}} \right) =- \, \delta _{\hat{e}} \left( \sf{P}_{\large{\ominus}} \vphantom{Q^{2}} \right) = \pm \rm{1}$

Then $\sf{P}_{\large{\oplus}}$ and $\sf{P}_{\large{\ominus}}$ are called the positive and negative components of P. When these two components have the same charge $q$ then the outcome of any calculation using the charge is not affected by a change of polarity. The electric polarity is used to specify direction on the electric axis. So for particles like P, the charge distribution along the electric axis is symmetric. Descriptions of phenomena associated with the charge of P are unaltered by any confusion or mix-up between positive and negative components. This indifference is useful, so if

$q \, \left( \sf{P}_{\large{\oplus}} \vphantom{Q^{2}} \right) = q \, \left( \sf{P}_{\large{\ominus}} \vphantom{Q^{2}} \right)$

then we say that P has **charge-symmetry on the electric-axis**. See this quark model of an electron for an example of electric-axis charge-symmetry.

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Charge Symmetry |