Doing Laboratory Experiments on Quarks
Reference Sensation Constant (Units)
knut.jpeg Touching ice $T^{\sf{b}} = 0$ (℃)
steam.jpg Touching steam $T^{\sf{c}} = 100$ (℃)
achromatic.jpg Not seeing the Sun $U^{\sf{d}} = 0$ (MeV)
Different people in different societies may have profoundly different ways of seeing things. So we make measurementsXlink.png to cope with perceptual variations. Mensuration is also a way to transcend personal sensory limitations. Overall, a systematic quantitative approach to observation is crucial for objectifying the description of sensation. Measurement techniques can be quite arbitrary to start, e.g. measurements of length began by referring to somebody's footXlink.png. But nonetheless observational methods have become very dependable because experimental physicists have invested an enormous effort in developing calibration standardsXlink.png and high precision techniques. For example, atomic clocksXlink.png can be used to make time measurements that are good to about one part in 1014. By comparison, in 2013 the US economy was 17 trillion dollars or about 1015 cents. So physicists can be fussy in a way that is like counting every dime spent in the USA per year. When we speak of doing laboratory experiments, we mean that observations are being made and reported in this fastidious style.
For WikiMechanics, discussing laboratory practice starts with the reference sensations that are benchmarks from which all perceptions are judged and recognized. These sensations are mathematically represented by constants. And sometimes, the constants express calibration standards. See the accompanying table for examples where $T$ notes the temperature, $U$ is the internal energy, and b, c or d represent the bottom, charmed and down quarks. Numerical values for these constants are established by convention, and are without any claim of universal validity. They can be altered by collective agreement if expedient. So, due to the variety of possibilities, a statement of measurement unitsXlink.png is usually included with any complete experimental report. As measurement techniques become more refined, calibration standards are adjusted, and so these constants actually represent historical standards. For example, the internal energy of a down-quark is almost always taken as zero, as indicated above. But precise observations of hydrogen show a tiny value of a few micro electronvolts.

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favicon.jpeg Measuring Quirks
Nouns Definition
Ice Constant ${\sf{\text{Freezing Point of Water}}} \\ T^{\sf{b}} = 0 \ \ \text{(℃)}$ 1-6
Nouns Definition
Steam Constant ${\sf{\text{Boiling Point of Water}}} \\ T^{\sf{c}} = 100 \ \ \text{(℃)}$ 1-7
Nouns Definition
Sun Constant ${\sf{\text{Mean Internal Energy of Down Quarks}}} \\ {\mathit{Ũ}}^{\sf{D}} = -27 \, \left( \sf{\text{µeV}} \right) \; \simeq 0 \, \left( \sf{\text{MeV}} \right)$ 1-3
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