Tampan, Paminggir people. Lampung region of Sumatra, near Semangka Bay, 19th century, 64 x 64 cm. Photograph by D Dunlop. From the library of Darwin Sjamsudin, Jakarta. |

Let P be a material particle in a stable balance with its environment. It might be emitting and absorbing lots of photons, but not melting or breaking into pieces. Then it is presumably steady enough so that we can model P using a sequence of excited states. Let these states be described by $\varrho$, their density. And recall that the constant number $k_{\sf{F}}$ was introduced earlier to grasp the shape of a particle. Then we say that P is a **Newtonian** particle if it is so dense that

$k_{\sf{F}} \ll \varrho$

This quality implies that Newtonian particles are heavy, as shown below. And later we show how interactions between Newtonian particles obey conservation laws for mass and mechanical energy.

$m c^{2} \simeq \left| \, H \, \right|$

$W^{2} \ll H ^{2}$

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Newtonian Particles are Dense |