Experimental physicists have observed hundreds of ephemeral nuclear particles. WikiMechanics considers them in much the same way as electrons or protons, but with different quark coefficients $n$. They are identified by their quantum numbers and characterized as either mesons, baryons, or perhaps leptons. Some important particle attributes are defined from $\Delta n$ rather than $n$, so complicated models that include superfluous pairs of ordinary-quarks wtih anti-quarks may represent the same data. Because of this possibility for redundancy, classification depends on assessing the *minimum* number of quarks that are at the heart of each family.

Here is a simple plan for classifying nuclear particles that is based on a tally of just two baryonic and two rotating seeds. It requires counting up, down, top and strange quarks. For any quantity $N$ of Z-type of quarks, lower bounds are noted by $N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{Z}}$. These minima are used to sort nuclear particles into 23 different family groups, so they are called **familial** seeds. They do not exactly define each group because there are always larger, more complex quark combinations that eventually overlap and blur categorical distinctions. But they do constrain the simplest combinations so that, for example, we can make statements like: A particle that contains only three up-quarks cannot be a lepton. Specific particles, and their excited states, are then modeled by adding more quarks to the familial pattern. Click on the yellow buttons below for more detail.

Nuclear Particle Families |

Also, here are a few other unassigned nuclear particles.