Classification of Nuclear Particles

Experimental physicists have observed hundreds of ephemeral nuclear particles. WikiMechanics considers them in much the same way as electrons or protons, but with different quark coefficients $n \,$, $\Delta n$ and $N \,$. They are identified by their quantum numbers and characterized as either mesons, baryons, or perhaps leptons. Many important particle attributes are defined from $\Delta n$ rather than $n$, so complicated models that include \begin{align} \sf { q \overline{q} } \end{align} pairs may be constructed. Because of this possibility, classification depends on assessing the minimum number of quarks that are at the heart of each family. Here is a simple plan based on a tally of the baryonic and rotating seeds in a particle's core. It requires counting up, down, top and strange quarks. Lower bounds for Z-type of quarks are noted by $N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{Z}} \,$. These minima are used to sort nuclear particles into 24 different family groups, so they are called familial seeds. Specific particles, and their excited states, are then modeled by adding more quarks to the familial pattern.

The most important characteristic for classifying nuclear particles is the number of down quarks in their core. The list below shows $N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{D}}$ in descending order as particles become less baryonic and more leptonic, finally arriving at the Higgs boson. Click on the yellow buttons for more detailed quark-models of the particles in each family.
Nuclear Particle Families
$\large{ N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{\, D}} = 16 }$ Familial Seeds Link Button

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{U}} = 12$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{S}} = 2$

$\large{ N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{\, D}} = 12 }$ Familial Seeds Link Button

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{U}} = 8$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{T}} = 1$

$\large{ N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{\, D}} = 10 }$ Familial Seeds Link Button

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{U}} = 2$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{T}} = 2$

$\large{ N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{\, D}} = 8 }$ Familial Seeds Link Button
$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{S}} = 8$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{T}} = 6$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{S}} = 2$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{S}} = 2$
$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{T}} = 4$
$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{T}} = 2$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{U}} = 4$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{T}} = 2$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{U}} = 4$
$\large{ N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{\, D}} = 6 }$ Familial Seeds Link Button

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{U}} = 6$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{T}} = 4$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{S}} = 2$

$\large{ N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{\, D}} = 4 }$ Familial Seeds Link Button

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{U}} = 4$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{T}} = 2$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{S}} = 1$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{T}} = 6$
$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{T}} = 4$
$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{U}} = 4$
$\large{ N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{\, D}} = 2 }$ Familial Seeds Link Button

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{U}} = 2$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{T}} = 6$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{S}} = 2$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{U}} = 2$
$\large{ N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{\, D}} = 0 }$ Familial Seeds Link Button

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{U}} = 8$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{T}} = 14$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{S}} = 4$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{T}} = 2$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{S}} = 4$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{U}} = 8$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{T}} = 2$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{S}} = 2$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{U}} = 8$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{S}} = 2$

$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{S}} = 2$
$N_{\sf{min}}^{\sf{U}} = 4$