A Rotini Model of an Atom

Principia Philosophiae by Rene Descartes, page 271 (detail). Amsterdam 1644. From the European Cultural Heritage Online project, and the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science. |

$\theta \left(t\right) = \theta_{0} +\omega t$

such that $\mathbf{A}$ is whirling about its polar axis with an angular frequency of $\omega$. The rotation supposedly blurs variations in the electric and magnetic radii leaving an effective orbital radius $R$ that is then used to represent the atom as a rotating cylinder. This rotating cylinder model smooths out some rough edges, but it is still incomplete because the electromagnetic part of the quark metric is larger than the other non-polar components. So one radial direction is predominant and the atom is shaped more like a piece of rotini pasta than a solid cylinder. This corkscrew spiral can be approximated by a geometric curve called a helicoid. It is described mathematically by radii of$\rho_{x} = R \cos{\! 2 \theta}$ | and | $\rho_{y} = R \sin{\! 2 \theta }$ | and | $\begin{align} \rho_{z} = \frac{ \lambda \theta}{2 \pi} \end{align}$ |

page revision: 170, last edited: 01 May 2019 15:20